Kidney Problems

 We have two kidneys, one on either side of the middle back just under the ribs. A kidney is about the size of your fist.
FUNCTIONS OF KIDNEY:
  Controlling the amount of water and salts in the blood
Filtering out waste products
  Producing a hormone that helps to control blood pressure Signs and symptoms In the case of autosomal dominant PKD, there may be no symptoms (a symptomatic) in the early stages. The cysts usually start growing during the teenage years.Overtime, the cysts replace healthy tissue and make the outline of the kidneys look irregular or 'moth-eaten'. Symptoms usually develop around 30 - 40 year sold but can begin earlier and may lead to kidney failure.

SYMPTOMS:

Pain in the back or sides
Headaches
Enlarged and painful abdomen (belly area)
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
High blood pressure - occurs early in the disease, often before cysts appear.
Urinary tract infections
Kidney stones
Liver and pancreatic cysts
Abnormal heart valves
Aneurysms in the brain - bulges in the walls of blood cells
Diverticulosis - small sac on the colon.
       The signs and symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD can begin before birth so it is often called 'infantile PKD'. Children with born with this type of PKD often develop kidney failure within a few years of birth and experience liver problems as they grow in to adults.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
High blood-pressure
Urinary tract infections
Frequent urination (passing urine)
Low blood cell counts
Varicose veins
Hemorrhoids
Smaller than average height.

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD):
  Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition that occurs when the kidneys can't remove waste or maintains the proper fluid and chemical balances in the body.Normally, the waste products that are produced by the body are filtered from the blood by the kidneys and eliminated in the urine. When the kidneys aren't working properly, the waste products build up and become poisonous (toxic) to the body. CKD can develop rapidly within 2 to 3 months or slowly, over 30 to 40years.
  Although kidney disease is a progressive, lifelong, and some times fatal-disease, it can often be managed effectively. Medications, lifestyle changes,and dietary modifications are used to control underlying health problems and help you live as normal a life as possible. If the disease progresses, an artificial means of filtering wastes (dialysis) or a kidney  transplant may be needed.
CAUSES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE:
  Diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure damage the blood vessels that supply the kidneys and are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease. Other causes of CKD include conditions that affect the structures inside the kidneys.Glomerulonephritis, for example, is a disease that causes inflammation of the kidney's filtering structures. The use or over use of many medications, an infection or an obstruction of the kidneys, and some genetic diseases can also damage kidney tissue and lead to chronic kidney disease.
SYMPTOMS OF CKD:
  Many people who develop chronic kidney disease do not have symptoms at first. This is known as the "silent phase" of chronic kidney disease. As the disease worsens, symptoms become more noticeable and may include:
Decreased urinary output (oliguria).
Fluid retention and swelling (edema).
Fatigue.
Loss of appetite (anorexia).
Nausea and vomiting.
Insomnia or increased sleepiness (lethargy).
COMPLICATIONS OF KIDNEY DISEASE:
1.    Easily confused or agitated. You may become very sleepy, have seizures, or slip into a coma.
2.    Loss of interest in food. You may feel nauseated, vomit, or begin to lose weight.
3.    Severe itching or easy bruising or bleeding from even a minor injury.
4.    Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat or chest pain from inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart(pericarditis).
5.    Breathing problems, such as shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
6.     Bone disease(osteo dystrophy),which is caused by a buildup of phosphorus and a decrease in calcium levels.
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